e-Security and National Parliaments: Digitised Citizens and Accountability
The UK: a survey
Compiled by Terry Mayer JMECE
University of Leeds
As part of the workpackage 6 on transparency and accountability
For F6p CHALLENGE
This research is supported by the EU Commission under f6p programme Challenge CITI-CT-2004-506255.
Digitised Citizens and Accountability This paper provides an overview of some key documents relating to the highly controversial subject of digitising citizens through the introduction of identity cards and biometric passports.
Compiled by Terry Mayer
Border Controls and Data Sharing : a UK view 5
Freedom of Information 8
ID cards 10
Legislative/Parliamentary Publications on ID Cards 11 Research Publications 13
SURVEILLANCE SOCIETY : PRIVACY, ETHICS and HUMAN RIGHTS
Report on the
Surveillance Society For the Information Commissioner by the Surveillance Studies Network
Questions concerning privacy, ethics and human rights are brought to the fore in this report: in particular, it is noted that it has proved difficult to convince policy-makers of the need to take into account the social dimensions of privacy. It is argued that surveillance varies according to geography, social class, ethnicity and gender, and that the needs of the individual regarding data privacy are being largely ignored: the great majority of people have neither the time nor the knowledge required to discover who has access to their personal data and how it is being used. Similarly, individuals are not necessarily aware of the level of surveillance which they are subject to, nor are they in a position to choose their level of such exposure.
Examples of the ways in which large companies use sophisticated data-mining techniques to build up profiles of customers are given, while the section on urban infrastructure demonstrates how data obtained from schemes relating to congestion charging and public transport can also be used for crime prevention: it is pointed out that such systems were never voted for, but evolved through a mixture of joined-up government, outsourcing of services and corporate pressure.
A major criticism in the report is the perception that technology is rushing ahead without the necessary knowledge with which to underpin the developments, either among the public at large, or the data-retention agencies themselves. The most urgent questions that need to be addressed focus both on access and movement of data.
The report highlights six major areas of concern:
Reactive regulation: official regulators have not been able to keep abreast of fast-moving IT developments; the EU’s Article 29 Working Party, where national and subnational regulators are involved, could offer a model for a similar initiative in the UK;
Technical and managerial regulation: international standardisation of privacy procedures would enhance the work of official agencies, lead to greater public confidence, and provide a legal basis for organisations to act upon;
The conception of ‘privacy’: the social value of privacy and the ‘public interest’ are emphasised as the means by which to safeguard privacy and limit surveillance. These concepts and their role in this debate need serious reevaluation in light of the new methods of surveillance.
The burden of regulation: an independent assessment of the costs of privacy, surveillance regulation and compliance should be carried out, along with an examination into the benefits of good privacy protection and regulation.
Public debate: with the low level of public debate over the issues concerned, it is suggested that an assessment of the existing role of the media, civic organisations, professional associations, academia etc could be undertaken in order to encourage discussion and enhance public knowledge.
Media discussion: the low level of debate in the media is again remarked upon: an examination of its future role should be carried out.
SURVEILLANCE SOCIETY – DATA PROTECTION
A Report on the
Surveillance Society For the Information Commissioner, by the Surveillance Studies Network
Public Discussion Document September 2006
This detailed report argues that, far from ‘sleep-walking into a surveillance society’, we are already there. Evidence for this claim includes details of records currently held on databases such as the National DNA database, which currently includes about 6 millions sets of fingerprints and the DNA of 3.45 million individuals (5.2% of the population). Other databases operated by the Police include Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) and the Violent Offender and Sex Offender Register (ViSOR); a Facial Images National Database (FIND) is also proposed, and all of the above will be accessible via the Police National Computer. Function creep, through which data collected for one purpose is used for another, is also highlighted. For example, personal data collected for the use of the electronic Oyster Card in London is increasingly drawn upon in police investigation. Similarly, the use of employee monitoring technologies may lead to surveillance of employees’ activities at work. Systems are designed to allow interoperability, and this can result in new, unregulated products emerging: ID cards, for example, will be used for several purposes, such as border crossing, fraud control, access to government information and for commercial and semi-commercial transactions, providing the controller of databases where the information is stored with an enormous amount of power over an individual.
While allowing that regulatory agencies are aware of the problems posed to civil liberties and privacy, the report questions the efficacy of the mechanisms in place, arguing that these need to be rethought and improved. More people should be involved in this process than at present, as there is a clear lack of understanding of the issues involved. It is also not sufficient for regulation to be confined to one country, or even a group of states, such as the EU. This is primarily an issue of global importance, and should be addressed as such.
Liberty and Security: Striking the Right Balance
Paper by the UK Presidency (undated)
The emphasis of the paper is on the key role which data retention plays in the fight against terrorism. Mobile service providers currently store data for varying lengths of time, and yet the data obtained through mobile and internet records can be ‘as useful as DNA’ in solving crime. Data used in anti-terrorist investigations are typically over six months old: in the future service providers will retain the information for 12 months. Police and other law enforcement agencies will not have unrestricted access to the data: access will be governed by national law.
The use and collection of biometric data is viewed as an inevitable consequence of technological advances, and a vital tool in the fight against terrorism and organised crime. It is noted that biometric data is more secure when stored on a database, and that the EU Visa Information System is the only means of accomplishing this to date. (As the UK is not part of Schengen, it does not have access to VIS.)
A trial was carried out which showed that a significant majority of people agreed that biometric data do not infringe civil liberties, and voiced overwhelmingly positively in support of the use of biometrics. However, no details (or reference to) the trial are given.
Data stored will comply with the UK’s Data Protection Act (1998) and the Human Rights Act (1998), both of which encompass the Data Protection Directive and the ECHR. Independent oversight will be carried out by a National Identity Scheme Commissioner.
Privacy International’s report focuses on PNR records. These will be collected on all passengers and kept for an unspecified period of time, and will include data such as method of payment and choice of meal. This reflects a shift from targeting specific individuals to providing a detailed dossier on the movements and preferences of all travellers.
The report from Statewatch argues that the UK’s policies will go beyond the requirements envisaged by the EU, and result in a system which is analogous to US-Visit, in that a historical profile will be built up on every traveller. It is also noted that there are no limits on the growth of the new scheme, which is being established under the auspices of the fight against terrorism and organised crime.
BORDER CONTROLS and DATA SHARING
FINAL REGULATORY IMPACT ASSESSMENT
DATA CAPTURE AND SHARING POWERS FOR THE BORDER AGENCIES
PUBLISHED ON 28 FEBRUARY 2006
Measures to be introduced are contained in the Immigration and Asylum Bill (2006). The aims are to provide security agencies and visa authorities with an integrated approach to border control and law enforcement. Data-sharing and disclosure provisions are also to be introduced. These will combine with the e-Border scheme to establish a ‘single window’ for border agencies. This is presented as of marked benefit to both passengers and carriers, as it will allow data to be captured once and shared with all border agencies. It is emphasised that law enforcement and intelligence agencies must be allowed to retain data for ‘a sufficient period of time to achieve the aim of maintaining an effective border security capability’. Although it is stressed that border agencies must comply with UK Data Protection law, attention is not given to the possible problems and anomalies involved in sharing data with countries with differing data protection provisions in place. The programme is designed for delivery in three stages, ending in 2010. Project Semaphore, which began in 2004, largely focuses on air carriers and is intended to inform future development of the measures.
One Step Ahead
A 21st Century Strategy to Defeat Organised Crime
Overview of the development of a new strategy against organised crime. It is argued that it is sensible for the Government to be able to capture data once and make it available for all border control purposes. Similarly, other obstacles to maximising data sharing should be identified: legal issues need urgent clarification.
Project Semaphore is viewed as similar in scope to US-Visit.
See Privacy International’s critique of US-Visit at:
HOUSE OF LORDS MINUTES OF EVIDENCE
TAKEN BEFORE THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON THE EUROPEAN UNION (SUB-COMMITTEE F) INQUIRY INTO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECOND GENERATION SCHENGEN INFORMATION SYSTEM (SIS II)
The Joint Committee on Human Rights (2005-6), comments on the powers already available to law enforcement authorities and intelligence agencies.
‘A range of agency-specific powers already exist to allow the Police Service, the Immigration Service and HM Revenue and Customs officials to request crew and passenger lists from chartered civil aircraft landing at UK airports. These powers exist under Schedule 7 to the Terrorism Act 2000, as amended by sections 118 and 119 of the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001; Paragraphs 27(2), 27B and 27C of Schedule 2 to the Immigration Act 1971; and sections 35(1) and 64(2)(b) of the Customs and Excise Management Act 1979.’
House of Commons RESEARCH PAPER 05/52
30 JUNE 2005 The Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Bill Bill 13 of 2005-06
Detailed overview of the new Immigration Bill, which includes measures on the provision and sharing of information (including biometric data). The paper includes the UKPS Biometrics Enrolment Trial, which was carried out by Atos Origin (an international information technology services company) in 2004. It is also noted that the Home Office will be setting up a new database with biometric details of all entry clearance applicants, while UKvisas is already running the Central Reference System: casework data on asylum seekers and immigration offenders stored on this is available to risk assessment units in other countries.
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT The Alvaro Report on data retention stresses the importance of EU harmonisation over the amount of time data can be retained.
DIRECTIVE 2006/24/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
of 15 March 2006
on the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly
available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and amending
House of Lords European Committee (Sub-Committee F) into the G6 meeting at Heiligendamm in March 2006.
Behind Closed Doors: the meeting of the G6 Interior Ministers at Heiligendamm
Investigation carried out by the House of Lords European Committee (Sub-Committee F) into the G6 meeting at Heiligendamm in March 2006. G6 meetings involve the Interior Ministers of the sixth largest EU states. The inquiry focused on issues of transparency and accountability, police access to Eurodac and VIS, and data protection. The Home Office is singled out for criticism through its failure to disclose details of the G6 meetings, particularly in light of the European Council’s Policy on Transparency, and it is recommended that the results of such meetings should be fully publicised in the future, along with a written ministerial statement to Parliament, and papers sent to relevant parliamentary committees. The report also questions the legality of police access to Eurodac under existing EU law, and calls for the Data Protection Framework Decision to be first put into place if data is to be accessed by the police for purposes other than the one for which the database was originally established. Similarly, the Government should ensure rigorous standards on data protection in VIS. Finally, the Committee recommends that the principle of availability should not be taken forward without adequate data protection safeguards: the Data Protection Framework Decision is a matter of high priority.
EUROPEAN DATA PROTECTION SUPERVISOR
Second opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor
on the Proposal for a Council Framework Decision on the protection of personal data processed in the framework of police and judicial co-operation in criminal matters
One of the major concerns highlighted in this report is the failure of Council to include the legislative amendments suggested by the European Parliament in September 2006 or his own recommendations, both of which were aimed at strengthening the Framework. As well as issuing a warning that Council is diluting the protective measures of the Framework, concern is expressed that citizens will lose the right to be informed when their data is accessed. An adoption of a proposal on processing biometric and DNA data is also required.
EUROPEAN DATA PROTECTION SUPERVISOR
Opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor on the Proposal for a Council Framework
Decision on the protection of personal data processed in the framework of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (COM (2005) 475 final)
GERMAN PRESIDENCY 01/2007-06/2007 The German Presidency has - very unusually - referred the draft Framework Decision of data protection in police and judicial matters back to the European Commission and asked them to provide a ‘revised proposal’.
See Statewatch for an analysis (January 2007)
NGOs Privacy International and EDRi, Invasive,Illusory,Illegal,andIllegitimate, Response to the Consultation on a Framework Decision on Data Retention September 2004
Privacy International and EDRi point to the inherent dangers of the retention of communications data, which can be ‘used to create a map of human associations and more importantly, a map of human activity and intention’, and leads to an increasing disregard for civil liberties.
Secondary Use of data
Use of Personal Information available on the Electoral Roll http://www.ico.gov.uk/upload/documents/library/corporate/notices/use_of_personal_information_available_on_the_electoral_role.pdf
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION
Department for Constitutional Affairs
Freedom of Information: annual reports These reports detail the implementation an operation of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, which came fully into force in 2005
Fourth Annual Report on Implementation [225kb] [November 2004]
Third Annual Report on Implementation [287kb] [November 2003]
Second Annual Report on Implementation [November 2002]
First Annual Report on Implementation [144kb] [November 2001]
Freedom of Information: Archived Annual Reports Freedom of Information - First Annual Report on Implementation [November 2001]
Draft Freedom of Information and Data Protection (Appropriate Limit and Fees) Regulations 2007
Consultation into the Government’s drafted amendments to FOI fees regulations. Consultation began on 14 December 2006 and ends of 8 March 2007
Draft Freedom of Information and Data Protection (Appropriate Limit and Fees) Regulations 2007
List of questions for public response
Independent Review of the impact of the Freedom of Information Act A REPORT PREPARED FOR THE DEPARTMENT FOR CONSTITUTIONAL AFFAIRS October 2006 by Frontier Economics Ltd.
This report sets out the rationale for the review into the FoI Act. Its remit is to examine the costs of delivering FoI across central government and the wider public sector, alongside an assessment of the key costs of FoI, and to provide an examination of options for changes to the current fee regime for FoI.
Released Information – Disclosure Log
Information released in response to previous FOI requests in the ICO’s Disclosure Log
INFORMATION COMMISSIONER’s OFFICE
Freedom of Information Progress Report October 2006 This report details the work of the Information Commissioner’s Office in the first 18 months since the Freedom of Information Act came fully into force. Although problems were experienced in the first year, the Information Commissioner is confident that procedures involved in handling complaints have been greatly improved.
Freedom of Information ICO Enforcement Strategy
While it is acknowledged that most public authorities have developed appropriate systems with which to successfully meet their responsibilities under the Freedom of Information Act, the Information Commissioner has some concerns about those that have not, and intends to take a more ‘robust’ approach in the future through the use of Practice Recommendations and Enforcement Notices.
ICO Document Library
This offers a comprehensive resource for both individuals and organisations on: data privacy, privacy and electronic communications, freedom of information, environmental information regulation, corporate issues.
Information Commissioner’s Office What Price Privacy Now? December 2006
Richard Thomas, Information Commissioner, is repeating his call for a two year jail term to deter those convicted of trading unlawfully in personal information. The report ’What price privacy now?’ reflects the six months progress made since his initial report ’What price privacy?’ was published in May 2006.
ICO and ID CARDS
The Government’s ID cards Proposals Detailed information on the Identity Cards Act (2006), and the response and work of the Information Commissioner. Although it is acknowledged the Government addressed some of the long-standing concerns that the Act would result in the creation of a National Identity Register, the Commissioner continues to have misgivings about the amount of information which will be held by the Government, and how this will be used in practice. Attention is drawn to the ‘data trail’ of the ID card, and the potential to thereby build up a very detailed picture of the individual. It is noted that, despite warnings, the Government has already admitted that the National Identity Register will be developed and will serve as a database of the adult population to inform the Citizens Information Project.
Information Commissioner’s concerns about the Identity Cards Bill October 2005
Information Commissioner’s concerns about the Identity Cards Bill May 2005
Information Commissioner’s position on Identity Cards Bill December 2004
Information Commissioner’s Press Releases concerns on Identity Cards, Questions and Answers
The Information Commissioner’s response to the Draft Bill.
Legislative/Parliamentary Publications on ID Cards The Government’s Response to the Science and Technology Report (October 2006) Download as pdf (231KB) Government’s response to the Science and Technology report.
Identity Cards Act 2006 - Section 37 - Cost Report (October 2006) Download as pdf (50KB) The first cost report to estimate public expenditure likely to be incurred on the scheme over the following ten years.
Draft Code of Practice on Civil Penalties (2006) Download as pdf (153KB) The purpose of the code is to set out the matters that the Secretary of State and civil courts should consider when determining the amount to be imposed in any case by way of a civil penalty under the Act.
Regulatory Impact Assessment (May 2005) Download as pdf (314KB) An updated version of the RIA that was published alongside the Identity Cards Bill.
Race Equality Impact Assessment (May 2005) Download as pdf (513KB) An updated Race Equality Impact Assessment to accompany the re-introduction of the Identity Cards Bill.
Identity Cards in Other Countries (Part 1) (Nov 2005) Download as pdf (94.2KB) Updates Annex 3 of the Home Office publication ‘Entitlement Cards and Identity Fraud: A Consultation Paper’.
Identity Cards in Other Countries (Part 2) (Nov 2005) Download as pdf (131KB) Details states that have joined the EU since the original consultation and accession states about their identity cards and whether they will begin to pilot or to roll out new biometric cards.
Home Secretary’s Response to JCHR (Feb 2005) Download as pdf (47.6KB) Response to Joint Committee on Human Rights by the Home Secretary.
Identity Cards: A Summary of Findings from the Consultation on Legislation on Identity Cards (Oct 2004) Download as pdf (712KB) Summarises the views received from the general public and stakeholder organisations during the consultation period.
Identity Cards: The Government’s response to the Home Affairs Select Committee Report (Oct 2004) Download as pdf (414KB) Government’s response to the HASC report.
Home Affairs Committee - Identity Cards - Fourth Report of Session 2003-04 Download as pdf (581KB) Report of the Home Affairs Committee’s inquiry into all aspects of identity cards
Legislation on Identity Cards - A Consultation Download as pdf (552KB) Seeks comments on the Identity Cards Bill that would establish the legislative framework for the incremental introduction of an Identity Cards Scheme.
Identity Cards: The Next Steps (Nov 2003) Download as pdf (180KB) Sets out the proposal to build the base for a compulsory national Identity Cards Scheme.
Home Secretary Statement to the House of Commons on Identity Cards (2003) Download as pdf (18KB) 11 November 2003 statement by the Home Secretary in the House of Commons.
Identity Cards: A Summary of Findings from the Consultation Entitlement Cards and Identity Fraud (Nov 2003) Download as pdf (683KB) Summarises the views received from the general public and stakeholder organisations during the consultation period.
Government’s Response to Consultation Points (Nov 2003) Download as pdf (98KB) Details the Government’s conclusions.
Entitlement Cards and Identity Fraud - A Consultation (Jul 2002) Download as pdf (3.4MB) Invites views on the Consultation paper published in July 2002.
Summary of the Consultation (Jul 2002) Download as pdf (214KB) Short summary of the Consultation paper and what the Government is consulting on.
Research Publications Report on Foreign National Identity Related Products Trade Off Research (Dec 2005) Download as pdf (467KB) Assessment of awareness and demand amongst foreign nationals for biometric residence permits and related identity products.
Identity Cards Trade Off Research Final Report (Oct 2005) Download as pdf (259KB) Intended to assess awareness and demand for the Identity Cards Scheme among both citizens and public and private sector organisations.
Identity Cards Trade Off Research Questionnaire (Oct 2005) Download as pdf (52.9KB) The questionnaire used during the course of the Trade Off Research, which is summarised in the Trade Off Research Final Report.
Identity Cards Trade Off Research Data Tables (Oct 2005) Download as pdf (940KB) These tables illustrate the raw data obtained in the course of the Trade Off Research, which is summarised in the Final Report.
Identity Cards Trade Off Research Interim Report (June 2005) Download as pdf (228KB) Provides some of the early headline findings of the research.
Public Response to Proposed Customer Propositions (Aug 2004) Download as pdf (306KB) Research among citizens to explore perceptions of the schemes benefits.
Special Issues Research (Mar 2004) Download as pdf (276KB) Examines the perceptions of the customer experience in applying for, enrolling for and using identity cards amongst people with special issues.
Awareness, Understanding and Attitudes to ID Cards (TNS Consumer) Quantitative Research Report (Sept 2004) Download as pdf (468KB) Intended to establish attitudes towards identity cards.
Public Perceptions of identity cards (Cragg Ross Dawson) Qualitative Research Report (Aug 2004) Download as pdf (323KB) Intended to explore the idea further and gauge response to more specific proposals for identity cards.
Qualitative research on perceptions of costs: research report commissioned by the Home Office (Aug 2003) Download as pdf (75KB) Qualitative research was commissioned to explore perceptions of costs among members of the general public.
Qualitative research on identity cards: research report commissioned by the Home Office (Jan 2003) Download as pdf (172KB) Commissioned to explore perceptions of entitlement/identity cards among members of the general public.
Estimate for Annual Cost of Fraud Table (2006) Download as pdf (80KB) Updated estimate of the cost of ID fraud to the UK economy.
Identity Theft Poster Download as pdf (1.8MB) The poster provides advice on ways to protect identity theft/fraud and where to get help.
Identity Theft Leaflet Download as pdf (396KB) Provides advice on ways to protect against identity theft/fraud and where to get help.
Identity Fraud - a study (Jul 2002) Download as pdf (241KB) A study to explore the extent and nature of identity fraud and theft in the UK.
General Strategic Action Plan for the National Identity Scheme (Dec 2006) Download as pdf (901kb) This document explains what the National Identity Scheme is, what it will deliver and when.
Prime Minister’s Press Conference Speech (Nov 2006) Text of speech Speech by the Prime Minister on 6 November 2006 about identity cards.
Biometrics 2006 Conference - Speech by Joan Ryan (Oct 2006) Download as pdf (106KB) Identity and Passport Service Corporate and Business plans 2006-2016 Download as pdf (1.66MB) The 10 year corporate plan and detailed annual Business Plan
Identity and Passport Service Framework Agreement Download as pdf (1.46MB) Sets out the Agency’s corporate governance
ID Cards Briefing (May 2005) Download as pdf (476KB) A short briefing on the Identity Cards Scheme.
KPMG Review of ID Cards Cost Methodology Published Extract (Nov 2005) Download as pdf (119KB) Independent review of the cost methodology and cost assumptions.
Home Office Summary of Work in Progress (Nov 2005) Download as pdf (108KB) Summary of work in progress on areas of the ID Cards Scheme highlighted by the KPMG review.
Letter to Prf Ian Angell of the LSE re. ID Cards (Nov 2005) Download as pdf (192KB) Response to Prf Ian Angell (DIS) from Andy Burnham re. ID cards
LSE Letter to Andy Burnham MP (Nov 2005) Download as pdf (20KB) Letter from LSE to Andy Burnham.
Home Office Response to LSE Alternative Blueprint (July 2005) Download as pdf (612KB) Home Office’s official response to the London School of Economics ’ID Cards Costs Estimates and Alternative Blueprint’.
Identity Cards Benefits Overview (June 2005) Download as pdf (784KB) Overview of the benefits of the Identity Cards Scheme
IPPR Speech (Nov 2004)Text of speech Speech by the Home Secretary on the 18th November 2004 about identity cards.
Feasibility Study on Use of Biometrics in an Entitlement Scheme (Feb 2003) Download as pdf (120KB) NPL study which examines the feasibility of using biometrics as a means of establishing a unique identity, to support the proposed entitlement scheme under development by the UKPS and Driving Vehicle Licensing Authority.
Loss of liberty is price for fighting terrorism The Daily Telegraph, 24.01.07 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/01/24/nclass124.xml
The west persists in using race to decide who can cross its borders The Guardian, 22.01.07
Iris scans dropped from ID card plans The Daily Telegraph, 22.01.07
Big Brother: What it really means in Britain today The Independent, 15.01.07
Leading article: Personal privacy and the power of the State
The Independent, 15.01.07
Yet another step along a dangerous road Shami Chakrabarti, Director of Liberty
The Independent, 15.01.07
Whitehall plan for huge database BBC, 14.01.07
Time for a new privacy law that leaves well alone The Times, 12.01.07
HOW THE BBC HAS USED THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT BBC , 12.01.07
Revenue admits theft of staff IDs BBC , 15.12.06 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4532530.stm
Spy planes, clothes scanners and secret cameras: Britain’s surveillance future The Guardian, 02.11.06 http://www.guardian.co.uk/humanrights/story/0,,1937192,00.html
From cradle to grave, your files available to a cast of thousands The Guardian, 01.11.06 http://www.guardian.co.uk/medicine/story/0,,1936473,00.html
Warning over privacy of 50m patient files The Guardian, 01.11.06 http://society.guardian.co.uk/health/news/0,,1936403,00.html
Change ’will weaken’ openness law BBC , 17.10.06 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6058184.stm
Wider use of private data planned BBC , 13.09.06 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/5342718.stm
Privacy row erupts over child database The Daily Mail , 30.08.06
UK bank details sold in Nigeria BBC , 14.08.06 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4790293.stm
’Failures’ targeted at birth The Independent, 16.07.06 http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/article1180225.ece
Delays in openness laws attacked BBC , 28.06.06 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/5123462.stm
Openness laws could be tightened BBC , 31.12.05 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4570956.stm
Openness watchdog in case backlog BBC , 16.12.05 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4533606.stm
Ministers to limit openness law BBC , 14.12.05 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6179617.stm