The decision to issue compulsory eID cards in Estonia was taken in 2000, and the first cards were introduced in 2002. The scheme is regulated by the Identity Documents Act. Data on all holders - including the personal ID numbers - are available in a public certificate directory. The cards contain two authentication keys, and a unique personal email address which is designed to be valid for life. It is used to forward communications to an individual’s ‘real’ email accounts. By the end of May 2005 around 765,000 cards had been issued to citizens.